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Пе-8 (АНТ-42, ТБ-7) - дальний бомбардировщик

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

В июле 1934 г. конструкторская бригада В.М. Петлякова под руководством А.Н. Туполева начала проектирование тяжелого бомбардировщика ТБ-7 (АНТ-42) для замены устаревшего ТБ-3. Основная идея проектировщиков заключалась в том, чтобы создать самолет, недосягаемый для лучших западных истребителей того времени. После ареста В.М. Петлякова все работы, связанные с разработкой и эксплуатацией самолета, были возложены на И.Ф. Незваля. В декабре 1935 г. эскизный проект и макет самолета были представлены военным во главе с М.Н. Тухачевским.

Дальний бомбардировщик Пе-8 (АНТ-42, ТБ-7) - видео

По своей схеме самолет представлял собой четырехдвигательный металлический среднеплан с убирающимся шасси. Для обеспечения требуемой высотности двигателей АМ-34ФРН было предложено оригинальное решение. Первоначально высотность двигателей предполагалось увеличивать путем установки турбокомпрессоров, но они еще не были окончательно доведены. По предложению А.Н. Туполева было принято решение об установке пятого двигателя М-100 для агрегата центрального наддува (АЦН), который был размещен в верхней части фюзеляжа. Стрелково-пушечное вооружение разместили с учетом максимальной эффективности оборонительного огня. В состав вооружения входили пушки, крупнокалиберные и скорострельные пулеметы. Было установлено новейшее навигационное оборудование, позволяющее выполнять полеты ночью и в сложных метеоусловиях на больших расстояниях от своих баз.

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

Постройка первого опытного самолета ТБ-7 была закончена 9 ноября 1936 г. 27 декабря самолет, пилотируемый экипажем во главе с летчиком-испытателем М.М. Громовым, совершил первый полет. Заводские испытания проводили без включения АЦН. Государственные испытания показали хорошие для того времени летные данные, и самолет, по настоянию ВВС, должны были срочно запустить в серию. Эталоном для серии стал второй опытный экземпляр ТБ-7 «дублер», в конструкцию которого были внесены изменения. Фюзеляж расширили на 100 мм, изменили его хвостовую часть, доработали систему управления, изменили состав оборонительного вооружения. Испытания «дублера» были закончены в декабре 1938 г. Серийное производство началось на Казанском авиазаводе № 124. Проблемы с поставками АЦН и двигателями АМ-34ФРНВ привели к остановке производства, были выпущены только две машины. С поставкой двигателей АМ-35 и дизелей М-30 и М-40 было построено к маю 1941 г. 27 машин. С началом войны выпуск самолетов Пе-8 (в 1942 г. самолеты переименовали в честь погибшего в авиакатастрофе В.М. Петлякова) был продолжен в небольшом количестве. Всего было выпущено 93 машины с различными двигателями и доработками. Дизели в эксплуатации показали низкую надежность и больше не строились.

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

Во время войны бомбардировщики АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) участвовали в различных операциях. Авиачасть, эксплуатировавшая ТБ-7 на Украине, попала под бомбардировку в первый же день войны, и уцелело лишь 13 самолетов. В июле 1941 г. было сформировано специальное соединение АДД под командованием М.В. Водопьянова. В ночь с 9 на 10 августа 1941 г. две эскадрильи этого соединения с аэродрома под Ленинградом совершили свой первый налет на Берлин. Было совершено несколько полетов на Кенигсберг, где были сброшены пятитонные бомбы. Самолеты участвовали в бомбардировках под Сталинградом и во время боев на Курской дуге. В 1942 г. на специально доработанной машине экипаж Э.К. Пусепа доставил советскую правительственную делегацию во главе с В.М. Молотовым в Англию и США и обратно. Было пройдено 17 800 км над океаном и над территорией, контролируемой противником. После войны самолеты Пе-8 использовались в подразделениях МАП и ГВФ, в полярной авиации до второй половины 1950-х гг.

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

Тактико-технические характеристики Пе-8

Экипаж, чел. 11
Двигатель, тип х кол, название ПДх4, АШ-82
Мощность, л.с. 1700
Размах крыла, м / площадь крыла, м2 39,0 / 188,7
Длина самолета / высота самолета, м 23,2 / 6,4
Масса: максимальная взлетная / пустого, кг 32 000 / 18 400
Полезной нагрузки, кг 6000
Максимальная скорость на высоте, км/ч 422
Практический потолок, м 7820
Максимальная дальность, км 5140
Вооружение 2× 20 мм пушки ШВАК (верхняя и хвостовая точка)
2× 12,7 мм пулемёты УБТ (поддвигательные гондолы)
2× 7,62 мм пулемёта ШКАС (носовая точка)
Боевая нагрузка: до 4000 кг, использовал
бомбы массой 5000 кг

Фото Пе-8

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик

Модификации бомбардировщика Пе-8

Модификации бомбардировщика Пе-8

АНТ-42 (ТБ-7, Пе-8) - дальний бомбардировщик


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Новейшие лучшие военные самолеты ВВС России и мира фото, картинки, видео о ценности самолета-истребителя как боевого средства способного обеспечить «господство в воздухе», была признана военными кругами всех государств к весне 1916 г. Это потребовало создания боевого специального самолета, превосходящего все остальные по скорости, маневренности, высоте и применению наступательного стрелкового вооружения. В ноябре 1915 г. на фронт поступили самолеты-бипланы Ньюпор II Вебе. Это первый самолет, построенный во Франции, который предназначался для воздушного боя.

Самые современные отечественные военные самолеты России и мира обязаны своим появлением популяризации и развитию авиации в России которому способствовали полеты русских летчиков М. Ефимова, Н. Попова, Г. Алехновича, А. Шиукова, Б. Российского,, С. Уточкина. Стали появляться первые отечественные машины конструкторов Я. Гаккеля, И. Сикорского, Д. Григоровича, B.Слесарева, И. Стеглау. В 1913 г. совершил первый полет тяжелый самолет «Русский витязь». Но нельзя не вспомнить первого создателя самолета в мире — капитана 1-го ранга Александра Федоровича Можайского.

Советские военные самолеты СССР Великой Отечественной войны стремились поразить войска противника, его коммуникации и другие объекты в тылу ударами с воздуха, что обусловило создание самолетаов-бомбардировщиков способных нести большой бомбовый груз на значительные расстояния. Разнообразие боевых задач по бомбардировке неприятельских сил в тактическом и оперативной глубине фронтов привело к пониманию того факта, что их выполнение должно быть соизмеримо с тактико-техническими возможностям конкретного самолета. Поэтому конструкторским коллективам следовало решить вопрос специализации самолетов-бомбардировщиков, что и привело к возникновению нескольких классов этих машин.

Виды и классификация, последние модели военных самолетов России и мира. Было очевидно, что для создания специализированного самолета-истребителя потребуется время, поэтому первым шагом в этом направлении стала попытка вооружить уже существующие самолеты стрелковым наступательным оружием. Подвижные пулеметные установки, которыми начали оснащать самолеты, требовали от пилотов чрезмерных усилий, так как управление машиной в маневренном бою и одновременное ведение огня из неустойчивого оружия уменьшали эффективность стрельбы. Использование двухместного самолета в качестве истребителя, где один из членов экипажа выполнял роль стрелка, тоже создавало определенные проблемы, потому что увеличение веса и лобового сопротивления машины приводило к снижению ее летных качеств.

Какие бывают самолеты. В наши годы авиация сделала большой качественный скачок, выразившийся я значительном увеличении скорости полета. Этому способствовал прогресс в области аэродинамики, создания новых более мощных двигателей, конструктивных материалов, радиоэлектронного оборудования. компьютеризации методов расчетов и т. д. Сверхзвуковые скорости стали основными режимами полета истребителей. Однако гонка за скоростью имела и свои негативные стороны — резко ухудшились взлетно-посадочные характеристики и маневренность самолетов. В эти годы уровень самолетостроения достиг такого значения, что оказалось возможным приступить к созданию самолетов с крылом изменяемой стреловидности.

Боевые самолеты России для дальнейшего роста скоростей полета реактивных истребителей, превышающих скорость звука, потребовалось увеличить их энерговооруженность, повысить удельные характеристики ТРД, а также усовершенствовать аэродинамические формы самолета. С этой целью были разработаны двигатели с осевым компрессором, имевшие меньшие лобовые габариты, более высокую экономичность и лучшие весовые характеристики. Для значительного увеличения тяги, а следовательно, и скорости полета в конструкцию двигателя ввели форсажные камеры. Совершенствование аэродинамических форм самолетов заключалось в применении крыла и оперения с большими углами стреловидности (в переходе к тонким треугольным крыльям), а также сверхзвуковых воздухозаборников.